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Learn to Program
- Practical Compiler Construction
- This book offers a tour through the full compiler for a clean and sane
subset of the C programming language (C89), covering lexical analysis,
parsing, semantics, code generation, optimization, and runtime support,
including lots of clarifying annotations and diagrams. The SubC compiler
discussed in the book is in the public domain and can be downloaded
- The SubC Compiler
- SubC is a clean, fast, and simple compiler for a subset of C89 that can
compile itself on various BSDs, Linux, Windows, and other systems. It also
cross-compiles to DOS. Its code is in the
- Scheme 9 from Empty Space (Book,
Play the Game)
- S9fES is both a book and an interpreter for the R4RS
programming language. The entire S9fES code is in the
public domain. The book offers
a guided tour through every single line of the interpreter with
lots of annotations and diagrams. It covers even the gory details,
such as macro expansion,
call/cc, and tail-call elimination.
- mLite, a lightweight, dynamic functional
- mLite is a general-purpose, functional, lightweight, dynamic
programming language. It borrows ideas from both the Scheme and
Standard ML languages, taking most of its syntax from ML and its
dynamic nature from Scheme. It extends ML-style pattern matching by
adding guarded patterns and also introduces the principle of
- Sketchy Scheme, 4.5th Edition
- A beginner-friendly introduction to functional programming in Scheme.
This is a step-by-step guide to problem-solving in the functional way.
The book contains lots of example, from trivial to advanced, as well as
Scheme definitions of many standard procedures, an informal explanation of
continuations, and a digression dealing with lambda calculus. Got stuck
with SICP? Try this one!
- Logic Programming in Scheme
- An introduction to the principles of logic programming in MicroKANREN,
covering predicates, goals, negation, cutting, and the translation of
functional code into declarative code. Chapter two uses logic programming
to solve the well-known Zebra puzzle, and chapter three contains the
complete and annotated implementation of MicroKANREN in portable Scheme.
See also: code from the book
There are free PDF copies of some draft versions and obsolete books at
- Lightweight Compiler Techniques
- A discussion of techniques for implementing simple yet efficient
compilers for procedural languages. Covers all phases of compilation:
scanning, parsing, optimization, code synthesis. Little theory, lots
of code. The T3X compiler described in this book can be found below.
- Zen-Style Programming
- An introduction to various aspects of computer science at break-neck
speed: functional programming, arbitrary-precision arithmetics,
meta-circular evaluation, searching and sorting, the limits of
computability, streams and generators, formal grammars, syntax
analysis, regular expressions, logic programming, design and
implementation of programming languages, and much more...
Code: Zen Lisp
- Die Anatomie einer Programmiersprache
An early precursor to Lightweight Compiler Techniques in German.
Code: BSL Compiler Kit
- BTN11 is a two-pass assembler that generates absolute
binaries for various models of the PDP-11. It is written in
- FOOGOL IV, V5
- Lindberg's FOOGOL IV compiler hacked up to emit 386 assembly
language. Also converted to modern (ANSI 89) C. Compiles fine
- An interpreter and compiler for an obscure BASIC dialect that I
have created back in the early 1990's. Includes some simple games
as example programs. The compiler is written in MINBASIC.
- Mini Scheme v.3
- An extended but still tiny version of Moriwaki and Kida's
Mini Scheme interpreter, featuring string operations, type checking,
file operations, improved macro syntax, and more complete error
- PD Korn Shell
- A slightly patched version of pdksh, compiles on most modern
BSD's and has a clear-screen function that you can bind to
a key. This was the one tcsh feature I was missing most in pdksh.
And: yes, I actually use this shell. :-)
- S9fES Interpreter, 2007 version
- The original version of the Scheme 9 interpreter from the
first edition of the book, including fixes to the errata from 2009.
- SOL Operating System
- SOL is a tiny, FORTH-based operating systems for the PDP-11
(sol-11.zip) and the IBM PC
(sol-86.zip). There is also a generic
version (sol3.zip) running on a
virtual stack machine. You need BTN11 (above) to compile the
PDP-11 version. Bootstrapping the other versions requires a working
T3X compiler. Good luck!
- T3X Compiler, version 8.1.7b
- T3X is a lightweight procedural language with backends for the
8086 (EXE), 386, Alpha, and the Tcode Machine. It features modules,
objects, a full optimizing compiler, and a set of tools for
manipulating Tcode. The Tcode port of the 8.1.7b compiler works fine
on 64-bit systems. Development of T3X ceased in 2004.
Version 6.8 of the compiler is
described in the book "Lightweight Compiler Techniques" (above).
- An interpreter, compiler, and editor for a super-terse dialect of
FORTH. Brevity = expressiveness? You decide. Lots of funny sample